Hainan is a national tilapia fry production area, with high production and production level. However, there are still some problems, such as potential quality problems, rising production costs, unreasonable layout of the nursery stock and so on.
Relying on the regional advantages and good natural conditions, Hainan tilapia breeding industry has developed into a large-scale, high-yield, excellent germplasm and export-oriented industry from small-scale, poor germplasm and self-cultivation. In recent years, although encountering many setbacks such as rare freezing rain, flood and streptococcal disease, it still maintains a relatively strong development trend. The annual output reaches more than 3 billion fish, of which 70% are sold outside the province. It is the most advantageous and powerful breeding base of tilapia in China. Therefore, the production of good varieties and fry of tilapia in Hainan province plays an important role in the development of tilapia industrialization. In order to further standardize its production behavior and promote the orderly, effective, sustainable and healthy development of the industry, the author made an analysis on the breeding industry of tilapia in Hainan.
1、 Status quo
1. Scale and variety
There are more than 30 private enterprises and small seed farms in the province. The seed production area is more than 7000 mu, and the annual production capacity is about 4 billion tails, mainly distributed in the eastern coastal area of Hainan. The main varieties developed from o'nei to Jifu series. Although Jifu series has the problem of frequent diseases in the process of promotion, it has the advantages of rapid growth and high yield. So far, there is no new variety to replace, and the breeding varieties tend to be single.
2. Production mode
Natural propagation and artificial seedling harvesting are the main production methods. There are also a small number of breeding enterprises using net cage, artificial egg collection, factory incubation, this technology can increase the annual output of more than 30%. The standard diameter of fish fry cultivation is mainly soil pond and net cage, or combination of net cage and soil pond. Artificial full price feed has replaced the traditional fertilizer and water seedling technology, which has the characteristics of high stocking density and high survival rate; at the same time, the micro pore tube oxygen increasing cultivation standard coarse technology has the advantages of saving land resources and convenient management.
3. Market dynamics
Over the years, the supply of early spring seedlings and autumn seedlings is in short supply, especially autumn seedlings. The output of autumn seedlings is small (only accounting for 15-20% of the annual output of each farm), the gap is large, and the price is on the high side. The peak production period is from the middle of April to the first ten days of June every year. The market supply exceeds the demand, and the price is the lowest value of the whole year. Over the years, the price of brand seedlings is far higher than that of non brand seedlings, which always dominates the development of the market and plays a good role in stabilizing and regulating the whole seedling market.
4. Professional level
After several decades of growing from small to large, the production from single mode to multi-mode, comprehensive technology transformation, the production capacity and quality of seedlings have been continuously improved, at the same time, a large number of professional and technical backbone and skilled workers at different levels have been created. In recent years, due to the penetration of foreign large-scale enterprises' technology, the traditional breeding concept and technology are more effectively updated, and the innovation consciousness is stronger. Especially in the introduction of germplasm, seed conservation, breeding, purification and rejuvenation, the production of male seedlings and other technologies, are in the forefront of the country.